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[国外锁具资料] 锁艺译丛(8) - 痕迹鉴定 - 单钩型 技术性开锁     [复制链接]

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asdasd
发表于: 2011-10-22 12:46:18 | 显示全部楼层

LOCKPICKING
单钩型技术性开锁


Lockpicking is a general term for a wide variety of covert entry techniques, all of which attack the locking components directly. Unlike impressioning or decoding, lockpicking attempts to open the lock without producing a working key or decoding the correct position of components. There are many different lockpicking tools for various lock types.

单钩型技术性开锁是对各种无损侵入的总称,而所有的无损侵入都直接针对锁定机构。与暗配,晃匙,读齿等技术不同的是:单钩型技术性开锁并不试图在开启锁具的同时暗配出钥匙或读取牙花齿形。而且该技术使用多种不同的工具来对付不同的锁具。

Pick Guns and Key Bumping are technically forms of pin-tumbler lockpicking, but are given their own pages because of their unique forensic evidence.
开锁枪与撞匙也属于技术性开锁的一类,但由于该技术产生的取证印迹比较独特,故将独立介绍!


LOCKPICKING PRINCIPLES
技术性开锁原理



In almost all cases of lockpicking two tools are used. A tension tool is used to gently apply tension to the lock, and a pick is used to position components. As tension is applied to the plug, bolt, or other component, locking components will bind in some way. The pick can be used to determine which component is binding and then used to position it properly. The correct position of a component is known by the attacker through feedback in the form of touch, sound, or sight. The tension tool holds properly positioned components in place, and the attacker repeats the process. Once all components are properly positioned the lock can be unlocked or locked.

通常情况下,单钩型技术性开锁需要使用两种工具:1.用于向锁芯施加扭矩的别子。2.用于拨动锁珠的各种钩子。当力矩被施加在锁芯,锁梁,门闸等等部位时,锁定元件会在一定程度上被卡住!而单钩则可以用于鉴别首先被卡住的珠子,并将其拨动至适合位置。开锁者则可以通过单钩触碰珠子的触感,声音乃至视觉来决定珠子正确的位置。而别子的带动则会使锁芯 保持已解锁的珠子的位置,而开锁者将重复这样的步骤直至开启。


The nature of lockpicking necessitates that strong materials be used for tension and picking tools. Tools are commonly made out of steel, iron, and aluminum. Tools are thin (on average 0.025 with pin-tumbler picks) and require a medium amount of force to move locking components. When contacting the softer brass or nickel-silver of locking components, pick and tension tools leave marks in the form of gouges and scratches. The best source of forensic evidence of lockpicking are on the components themselves, but the lock housing, bolt, and cam may also be examined, depending on the type of lock.

单钩型技术性开锁的原理决定了必须使用强韧的材料来制作工具,通常有:钢,铝,等等!工具厚度比较薄(开启普通直接制栓锁的工具厚度大概在0.025英寸左右)而且必须使用中等的力量来拨动锁珠。而且当单钩和别子在开锁时和相对柔软的黄铜或镀镍层接触的时候,就会留下凿痕和磨擦的痕迹。故此作为研究和取证的最佳对象则是作为制栓的珠子,叶片等等的锁定元件,但鉴于锁具类别的不同,锁套,锁梁还有凸轮也可作为司法人员的取证对象!



FORENSIC EVIDENCE
法庭取证



16 分钟前


The act of using a pick tool is invasive, and we expect the stronger material of the pick tool to cause marks on the softer brass or nickel-silver of the lock components. In this photo, we see scratches where the pick tool was used to lift the pin. These appear to be single-pin picking marks due to their shape and consistency.

开锁工具的使用是会留下印迹的,大家都希望看到坚硬的工具在于相对柔软的黄铜或镀镍层接触的时候留下的痕迹。在插图中我们可以看到单钩在拨动珠子是留下的划痕。从划痕的形状与一致性来看,显然开锁者是逐个开启锁珠的。






This photo is similar to the last, but instead there are many varied, elongated scratches at different angles and depths on the pin. This type of marking is indicative of a pick that is designed to be gently rubbed against the pins at varying height and tension. Of course, this is the technique known as raking or rake picking.

这张插图和上一张得很类似,但不同的是珠子上布满了各种不同角度和深浅的长条形划痕。这样的条痕表明单钩是设计用于在匙槽里抽拉,摩擦拨动珠子并随即调整其高低与张力。当然了,这种技术被称为刷拨(抵着珠子快速抽拉)。






In this photo, marks left appear to be a combination of both picking techniques. Many attackers will attempt to lightly rake as many pins as possible and then proceed to use single-pin picking against the rest. This may be necessary in the case of security pins that are triggered while raking, also.

这张图片里的痕迹是以上两种开启方法的混合使用。相当多的开锁者会先尝试轻轻的刷拨尽可能多的珠子,然后再开启仍然卡住的珠子。当锁芯被工字珠卡住时,这种操作尤为必要!





The marks left by an attacker are in many ways indicative of their skill level. In this photo, extremely deep and plentiful pick marks are shown. The attacker, an amateur, used extreme force on both tension and pick tools. The extreme tension causes pins to bind against plug and require more force to be lifted.

开锁者留下的痕迹会在方方面面显示其技术的高低。在这张图片里,珠子顶部密布非常多极深的划痕。显然开锁者对别子和单钩施加了过分的力量,表明其只是业余水平。因为过分的扭矩会使珠子和锁芯的摩擦力增大,这就要求更大的力度来拨动!






This is a very skilled attacker who uses extremely light tension and picking force to reduce forensic evidence. Despite skill, we still find similar forensic evidence. In this photo, pick marks are extremely light but still visible in the center of the pin. We can also see some marks on the side of the pin which are more defined.

这是一位技艺娴熟的开锁者,使用极端轻微的拨力和扭矩,来增加取证的难度。但不管怎样,我们还是能够发现相近的痕迹。在此图中,拨动珠子留下的痕迹虽然极其轻微但在锁柱顶部的中央仍然可见。而且我们在珠子的侧面也会找到更有力的痕迹证据!





There are many other designs of pin-tumbler besides the standard round or pointed tips. This is a photo of a Mul-T-Lock telescoping pin tumbler that uses an inner and outer pin stack. Both show signs of picking tools. If we separate the pins, we would also probably find picking marks on the inside chamber of the outer pin.

除了标准的圆头和尖头珠子外还有很多不同种的设计。图片显示的是无敌的字母珠。在内外珠子上我们都可发现单钩的痕迹。如果将字母珠分开我们很有可能在外珠的内孔中发现开锁痕迹。





Some pin tumbler designs are rather strange, designed to deter manipulation. This photo shows a Vachette VIP "nippled" pin. The design of this pin is rather complex, with not only a nippled tip but also a very spool like appearance. In any event, picking marks are visible along the nipple and base of the pin.

一些锁珠专门设计来阻碍技术性开启,形状比较奇怪。图片展示的是瓦谢特VIP球头锁珠。珠子的设计比较复杂,除了带有球头之外珠身还很像纺织线轴。大多情况下,在球头和端面都能找到开锁痕迹。





Forensic evidence is also left behind by various lock-specific tools, which are growing more common with high-security locks. In this photo, the pick marks from a Medecoder type tool are visible in the sidebar channel where the tool was used to rotate the bottom pin.

痕迹证据也会由各种随高保险锁具发展而来的专开工具留下,在插图中,由美帝高专开工具旋转锁珠时留下的开启痕迹在锁珠边柱槽中清晰可见。






For the attacker, it is difficult to not touch the sides of pins. This can happen during raking as well as single-pin picking. Marks left on the sides of pins are quite noticeable and not as prone to wear and those in the center of the pin. In the photo, light scratches at varied angles are visible.

对于开锁者,想要不接触锁珠的侧面是困难的。而这样的痕迹在刷拨和单珠开启时都可能留下。留在锁珠侧面的印记是相当明显的,而且不会像珠子顶端的印迹那样容易磨损。插图中,在不同的角度都可见轻微的划痕。






In the case of low-high pinning combinations it is even harder to lift pins without touching the sides of other pins. In this photo, a series of long scratches travel up the side of the pin. Interestingly, we may be able to measure the length of scratches to determine if the attacker raised the adjacent pin high enough.

在珠子落差极大的组合时,想要拨动珠子而不触碰其侧面就更困难了。在插图中,显示珠子轴向上一连串的划痕。有趣的是,我们也许能通过测量划痕的长度,来判定开锁者当时是否将相邻的珠子调整到合适高度而达到开启。





Like the bottoms of the pins, the sides can tell a great deal about the skill level of the attacker. In this photo, gouges on the sides of the keys are rather deep, caused by extreme force being used on both the tension and picking tools. With this much material removed, it may be possible to identify pin material on a suspect's possessions.

和珠子尖端一样,我们也能从珠子的侧面留下的痕迹判定开锁者的技术高低。插图中,在珠子的侧面可见极深的划痕,由过分的力量被施加于别子和单钩上造成。因大量的金属磨损脱落,所以很可能在嫌疑犯的工具上辨别出相应的材料。






The movement of the pick through the keyway also leaves forensic evidence in several places. The most common is on the walls of the plug itself. In this photo, scratches left by the pick tool are found below the pin chambers on the walls of the plug. The scratches are at various angles inconsistent with the use of a key.

单钩在匙路活动时也会在不同的地方留下痕迹证据。最常见的痕迹存在于匙路内壁上。插图中,在珠孔下方的匙路内壁上可以找到由单钩留下的划痕,这种划痕分布于不同的角度,而且与钥匙造成的正常磨损差别很大。





One of the best places to look in the plug is at the top of the keyway. The key will never touch this area, so it is one of the few "virgin" areas in the lock. In this photo, we can see that there are light scratches along the area before the first chamber, probably from the use of a tension tool at the top of the keyway.

匙路内壁的顶端是寻找痕迹证据最好的位置之一,因为钥匙可能永远都不会接触这些地方,是锁具上为数不多“处女地”。插图中,我们可以在第一个珠孔前的部位看到轻微的划痕,很可能是由安插于匙路上的别子造成。






Marks on the warding inside of the plug are also common. Normal use of keys does not usually cause these marks, but if they are indeed the cause marks should be present on several other wards, as well. In this photo, a deep gouge has been made by the pick tool on one of the wards deep inside the plug.

匙槽的筋条上通常也会留下开锁痕迹。钥匙的正常使用是不会产生这样的划痕的,就算这样划痕真的由钥匙产生,那么我们也会在好几根筋条上发现相同的痕迹。插图显示,在匙路的深处发现由单钩在筋条上留下的压痕。






Marks may also be left in the pin chambers themselves. In this photo, we see a mark on the left side of the pin chamber. This area of the plug cannot be touched by the key and pins would not make a mark like this unless they were severely deformed. Compare with the chamber wall on the right.

而珠孔也是可能留下开启痕迹的部位。插图中,在珠孔的左侧可见清晰的压痕。而这个位置却是钥匙触碰不到的,而且珠子也不会留下这样的痕迹,除非它们都严重的变形。请与珠孔的右侧作比较。






We might find pick marks higher in the pin chambers, too. These areas are subject to wear as pin stacks are moved by the normal action of the key. In this photo, an up-down-up patterned scratch is seen. This is probably caused by the attacker lifting and lowering the pin stack, trying to find the shear-line.

在珠孔的更高处,我们也可能找到印迹。这一部位因钥匙推动珠子的活动,而比较容易磨损。插图中,可见成上升和下降模式的划痕。这可能是开锁者试图将高位珠子调整至切线而造成的。






Forensic evidence of the tension tool can also be identified rather easily, especially if the attacker is a beginner or amateur lockpicker. The act of putting tension on the plug causes the tool to lightly shear the plug walls. In this photo, we can see the gouges left by the tension tool being placed at the bottom of the keyway.

对于别子留下的痕迹证据也很容易被辨认,尤其当开锁人属于业余水平或是初学者时。别子带动锁芯时就会轻微的划伤匙路的内壁。插图中,可辨认出,当别子放置于匙路底部带动锁芯时留下的压痕。






Destructive disassembly of the plug lets us get a better picture of tension tool marks. In this photo, we can see that there is a deep gouge where the tension tool was actually used, as well as several scratches below it. The scratches are likely from positioning of the tool or tapping it with the picking tool while picking.

切割分解锁芯能让我们更清楚地观察到别子留下的痕迹。在插图中,我们能看到由别子造成的较深的压痕,以及压痕下面的一些划痕。下面的划痕估计是由调整工具位置或在单钩开启时轻轻震动别子来带动单钩所造成的。






In the case of a skilled attacker, very light torque is applied to the tension tool. It may be more complicated to identify marks without proper lighting, but even in this example, where low tension was used, the tension tool marks can be identified when they are properly illuminated.

经验老到的开锁者会在别子上施加十分轻微的扭矩。在这种情况下,假如没有合适的光源,是很难辨认出痕迹的。尽管是这样,在此样板中,别子被施加极细微的扭矩,但在合适的光照下依然能被辨认出来。






The cam may also have marks because many attackers, when navigating the back of the plug, will hit the cam. This is especially true of less controlled techniques like raking. In the photo, a light scratch is present in the center of the cam, a place the key normally does not touch.

在锁具的带动凸轮上也可能找到来锁痕迹,因为很多开锁者在开启位置较后的珠子时,就会撞到凸轮上。而类似于刷拨珠子这样难控制的技术就更容易出现类似情况。插图显示,在凸轮的中央可见几道轻微的划痕,而这个位置通常钥匙是不会接触的。






One of the problems as an amateur is knowing where the pick is. It is common to see many amateurs with the tip of the pick poking out of the cylinder. When the cam is on, this may translate into extreme scratching on the back of the cam, as seen in this photo.

问题之一是业余的开锁者并不能准确掌握单钩在锁芯内的确切位置。而且在业余者开启时常常会将单钩的尖端戳出锁芯外部。如图,当遇到锁芯装有带动凸轮时,就会在凸轮的背面戳出极深的划痕。


EFFECTS OF WEAR
磨损的影响







The question always arises as to how we can determine when pick marks were made or how long it takes normal wear to remove them. In this photo is the first pin from a lock that has been picked once. We will use this as a reference to see the effects of wear after 250 uses.

一个一直困扰取证人员的问题是,我们应该怎样判定锁具是在什么时候被开启的,还有多长时间才会被磨损消失。图片显示的是曾被单钩开启的锁具的第一颗弹珠并且经过250次的钥匙使用。






After 250 uses (roughly 2-4 months use) the tip of the pin has been worn by the key, leaving fewer distinct picking marks. At the same time, the sides of the pin still show very clear and distinct picking marks. This is because the key does not touch these areas as frequently and may never, depending on the key bitting.

经过250次(大约2-4个月的使用)珠子的尖端就会被钥匙磨损,曾经留下的痕迹就会变得模糊。但不变的是,柱子的侧面会依然显示清晰明确的单钩痕迹。这是因为钥匙不管使用多么频繁,也并不一定会接触珠子的这个部位。具体取决于钥匙牙花的高低。






While taking the last photo I noticed a strange shape in the top right of the photo. When I refocused in that area I found this. It appears to be a small piece of brass that has transferred to the tip of the pin, probably a very small fragment of the key.

在谈论最后一张图片时,我注意到珠子顶端右侧有一片奇怪的物体。看上去是一小片黄铜,很可能是钥匙上脱落的!


NON-METAL LOCKPICKS
非金属单钩







Carbon fiber lockpicks were considered for use in Anti-Forensics, but my research shows that they leave marks similar to traditional metal lockpicking tools. The photo shows a finished carbon fiber lockpick in the half-diamond design. This pick is roughly 0.025" thick.

在反侦察活动中会使用到碳纤维开启工具,但在我的研究中表明它们会留下和传统工具相似的痕迹。图片展示的是一把普通的钻石形头部单钩,厚度大约在0.025英寸。






Carbon fiber picks did not work as well as I had hoped. Most importanly they fell short of surreptitious by leaving marks on pin-tumblers similar to traditional tools. In this photo, light scratching along the tip and side of the pin can be seen, caused by a carbon fiber lockpicking tool.

碳素工具的作用并非像想象中那么好,最重要的是它们依然不够隐蔽,因为在弹珠锁中会留下和传统工具相似的痕迹。插图显示,在珠子顶部和侧面都可见有碳素工具引起的细微划痕。






Carbon fiber lockpicks also seem to grab and hold pin materials much better than their metal counterparts. In the photo, a carbon fiber pick is shown with brass residue from the pins of a lock it has picked. This can be used in court as evidence to link a suspect to a crime.

碳素工具比起金属工具也似乎更容易藏纳碎屑,在插图中,碳素工具上带着被开锁具的碎屑。在法庭上,这可以作为嫌疑人作案的证据。






Also considered for Anti-Forensics were fiberglass based lockpicking tools. My research shows that these are also unsuitable because they leave distinct forensic evidence on the pins and inside the plug. In this photo, a half-diamond fiber glass pick is shown. This pick is roughly 0.028" thick.

在反侦察活动中除了碳纤维工具外,还会使用到玻璃纤维开启工具,根据我的研究,它们并不合适,因为这种工具会在珠子和锁芯内部留下显著的痕迹证据。图片所示,是一把普通的钻石形头部单钩,厚度大约在0.028英寸。






Fiberglass also left various traces similar to traditional metal lockpicking tools. In this photo, parallel scratches at various angles and positions can be seen on the bottom and side of the pin-tumbler. All marks were cause by the fiberglass picking tool.

玻璃纤维工具也同样会留下与金属工具近似的痕迹。图片所示,在珠子的顶部和侧面不同的角度和位置可见相应的划痕。所有的痕迹都是玻璃纤维工具留下的。






Fiberglass is also less surreptitious than carbon fiber because the act of picking and raking the lock leaves behind a sizeable amount of fiberglass on the pin-tumblers and walls of the plug. In this photo, fiberglass residue can be seen on the tip of the pin-tumbler.

玻璃纤维工具甚至比碳素工具更不隐蔽,因为当单钩在挑动和刷拨珠子时会在匙路内壁留下相当多的玻璃纤维。插图中,在珠子的顶端可见玻璃纤维碎屑。






Like carbon fiber picks, fiberglass does a very good job of trapping trace evidence from the pin-tumbler inside the lock onto the pick. In this photo, the tip of the fiberglass pick is shown with light brass residue and lubricant (black) clearly visible.

玻璃纤维工具的粗糙表面和碳素工具一样很容易藏纳锁芯部件的碎屑。插图中,玻璃纤维单钩的尖端可清楚地辨认出闪光的黄铜碎屑以及残留润滑物。






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发表于: 2011-10-22 13:08:13 | 显示全部楼层

   楼主辛苦。。。向你致敬。。。

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还真不好意思吖,平时手头事情比较多,一篇帖子几处发,确实有些忙不过来!还望大家多多包涵!  详情 回复 发表于 2011-10-23 11:05
发表于: 2011-10-22 13:32:27 | 显示全部楼层

这个真的很佩服
发表于: 2011-10-22 13:46:22 | 显示全部楼层

{:soso_e113:}
古桥
发表于: 2011-10-22 16:02:37 | 显示全部楼层

{:soso_e179:}
老程
发表于: 2011-10-22 18:49:27 | 显示全部楼层

辛苦  {:soso_e179:}
发表于: 2011-10-22 20:17:43 | 显示全部楼层

辛苦{:soso_e183:}
发表于: 2011-10-22 22:21:15 | 显示全部楼层

楼主辛苦啦。
冷冷
发表于: 2011-10-22 23:35:27 | 显示全部楼层

LZ辛苦了,在整理一下吧,好乱
asdasd
发表于: 2011-10-23 11:05:01 | 显示全部楼层

AAAAAA的内涵 发表于 2011-10-22 13:08
楼主辛苦。。。向你致敬。。。

还真不好意思吖,平时手头事情比较多,一篇帖子几处发,确实有些忙不过来!还望大家多多包涵!
发表于: 2011-10-23 11:16:12 | 显示全部楼层

辛苦了{:soso_e183:}
发表于: 2011-11-28 09:51:06 | 显示全部楼层

经典啊!{:soso_e181:}

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谢谢支持啊!  详情 回复 发表于 2011-11-28 14:47
asdasd
发表于: 2011-11-28 14:47:28 | 显示全部楼层

欢乐方圆 发表于 2011-11-28 09:51
经典啊!

  谢谢支持啊!
发表于: 2011-12-31 18:43:26 | 显示全部楼层

我把LZ的都不厚道地复制下来了,慢慢看,这东西总能给人启发,谢谢。。。。。。。。。。

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这是我的荣幸!  详情 回复 发表于 2012-1-1 12:52
发表于: 2012-1-1 10:52:17 | 显示全部楼层

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